The 25 types of education (and their characteristics) - medical - 2023



Education is an essential part of our lives. It is the training that we receive from other people in order to promote our knowledge about the world around us, but also to develop our critical thinking, promote our values, grow as people and learn the rules of coexistence of our society.

Looking at this definition we realize that education does not only include reading books at school. Education is much more. Everything that makes us grow emotionally and intellectually can be included within it.

Thus, In today's article we will see the different types of education that exist, analyzing it from different perspectives.

What types of education are there?

As we have said, there are different types of education, each one of them having specific characteristics. Next we will see them, analyzing them from different points of view, that is, depending on the educational level, the regulation that follows, the degree of obligation, the presence, the cost of the studies and the content.

1. According to the educational level

This classification that we will present below depends on the age with which the academic training in question is received. As the age of the student advances, the higher the educational level and, therefore, the requirement.

1.1. Infant education

Early childhood education is the academic training offered to children in preschool (less than 3 years) and in the first years of school (from 3 to 5 years). Although virtually all parents send children to school at this age, early childhood education is not compulsory.

1.2. Primary education

Primary education is already compulsory and is the training offered to boys and girls from 6 to 12 years old.

1.3. Secondary education

Secondary education, also known as ESO, is the next level of education. Young people from 12 to 16 years old receive this training that prepares them to make the leap to higher education. It is the last compulsory educational level.

1.4. Upper secondary education

Upper secondary education and the following educational levels are no longer mandatory. This educational level encompasses both intermediate level vocational training and high school. In both cases, the duration is 2 years, from 16 to 18. The baccalaureate is focused on people who want to study a university career and professional training, those who want to learn a trade.

1.5. Higher education

Higher education is that which is received upon coming of age and consists of both university degrees and higher-level vocational training. In the case of the latter, training ends at this level. University students have the option of, upon completing their degree with approximately 21 years of age, accessing the next educational level.

1.6. Post-college education

University education, although there are exceptions, usually starts off as good as high school, that is, at 18 years of age. Post-university education, on the other hand, is more focused on adults of any age who have a university degree. This training is much more specialized and is a good option to earn points in the job market. Master's and doctorates are the main examples.

2. According to regulation

Although education in colleges and universities is regulated by law, not all the education we receive comes from academic centers. And this is what we will see next.

2.1. Formal education

Formal education is all the training that we receive from schools, universities and educational centers that apply methodologies and that present content in accordance with the legislation of the country in which they are located. Completing formal education studies implies obtaining degrees or certificates accepted anywhere.

2.2. Informal education

Formal education encompasses all the training that we can receive from centers that, although they may be of a very good quality, their procedures are not regulated by law or follow patterns common to other centers of the same style. For example, if we do an online photography course, we will be at this level. We will obtain a degree that, although not as valuable as those obtained in formal education, proves that we have a good training and may be of interest to some companies. Non-formal education should be understood as a fantastic complement to formal education.

2.3. Informal education

Informal education is that training that we do not receive from any center or that offers us any degree or certificate, but it is still just as important to grow intellectually and as people. Informal education is basically living. Listening to our parents, making mistakes and learning from them, watching documentaries, reading on their own… Homeschooling by parents is another type of informal education.

3. According to the obligation

Education can be compulsory or non-compulsory. Below we present the two types and the training that each one includes.

3.1. Obligatory education

Compulsory education is the training that people must go through. Includes primary and secondary education. In other words, young people must go yes or yes to school from 6 to 16 years old, which is how long compulsory education lasts. Otherwise, parents or legal guardians face serious legal problems.

3.2. Non-compulsory education

Compulsory education is one that is optional. The preschool age and especially the age after 16 years are those that are included within this. The fact of studying is totally optional since it is considered that the person has received sufficient training to be functional members of society. Higher education, that is, from high school or vocational training, is not compulsory, as are the nursery and school years from P3 to P5.

4. According to the degree of presence

New technologies have allowed, although in school years it is the most frequent to guarantee a good training, being physically in a classroom is not necessary to receive a quality education. This is another criterion that we can take into account.

4.1. Classroom education

Face-to-face education is the most traditional. It is what we see in all years of school, high school, vocational training and in most university degrees. It is the education that students receive when they are physically in a classroom, with the rest of their classmates and teachers.

4.2. Blended education

More and more common in university studies and especially post-university studies, blended training is one in which some content is offered physically in a classroom while part of the education is distance learning, which can be done online. Experts say this is the future of education.

4.3. Online education

Less common than the previous two, online education is training that is offered entirely at a distance, that is, the student never gets to be in a classroom. Many non-formal education courses are based on this type of education. Similarly, in recent years, some online universities have been formed that offer very good distance education. The student can obtain the title without ever having to go to university.

5. According to the cost

Depending on how the ratio is between what parents pay (or the student himself in higher education) and what the State pays, we will be facing one type of education or another. It can be public, private or concerted.

5.1. Public education

Public education is that training that is supported entirely by taxes. Parents of students do not have to pay anything. It is "free" education, because it comes from the taxes that we all pay and that allow us to pay teachers, maintain centers, offer services to students ... Public universities deserve a separate mention, because, despite the fact that part comes from the State, You must pay a tuition that normally exceeds 2,000 euros per year. Despite this, it is still public education.

5.2. Private education

Private education is the training offered in private centers, that is, outside (at least partially) the country's educational system.As it is not covered by taxes, the parents of the students must pay the full tuition.

5.3. Concerted education

Concerted education is a mix between the previous two. The centers that offer it are private but are also partially maintained by the national educational system. Therefore, although education is not free and parents must pay part of the tuition, it is significantly less expensive than in purely private schools.

6. According to content

We can train and receive education in many different things. Therefore, below we present a classification of education based on the content that is offered to us.

6.1. Academic education

Mathematics, biology, philosophy, language, chemistry, physics, literature, history ... Academic education is that of pure content, that is, learning about different sciences, including social ones. All the subjects we study, whether in primary or higher education, constitute this type of training. It is objective information.

6.2. Intellectual education

Intellectual education, which should not be confused with academic education, is one in which knowledge about a specific subject is not offered, but is training that seeks to awaken creativity, critical thinking, reason, and logic in students. and all the tools that can help them grow intellectually.

6.3. Social education

Social education is everything we learn about humanity and sociability, that is, all the tools that education gives us so that we grow as members of a specific society, adapted to the norms and ethics of the place where we live.

6.3. Emotional education

Emotional education is everything that we are taught about emotions, their triggers, how to manage them, how to work on empathy and emotional intelligence, how to resolve conflicts with other people, etc. It helps us grow as people.

6.4. Education in values

Education in values ​​is the training that is intended for us to learn about justice, respect, freedom of expression and everything that has to do with ethics and morals. In the same way, it must pursue that each person, in order to promote their growth, is able to build their own values ​​based on which they will act for the rest of their life.

6.5. Physical education

Physical education is the part of education that encourages healthy lifestyles and in which students learn different sports and become familiar with their physical abilities. Similarly, physical education seeks to raise awareness, from an early age, of the benefits and importance of doing physical activity.

6.6. Artistic education

Art education is the training that we receive and that familiarizes us with the world of art. It seeks to promote creativity and the acquisition of skills, especially related to painting and music.

6.7. Special education

Special education is the training received by people with different educational needs different from those of the rest, especially focused on young people with physical or emotional disabilities, such as autism, cerebral palsy, gifted, depression, psychosis, etc. Professionals who provide this type of education know exactly what they need and, being aware of their limitations, offer these exceptional people the best possible training.

Bibliographic references

  • Muñoz Quezada, M.T. (2006) "Education and effectiveness". Ibero-American Journal of Education.
  • Martínez Uribe, C.H. (2013) "Distance education: its characteristics and needs in current education". Education.
  • Shirley Benítez, N., Arroyave Giraldo, D.I., Bolívar, D.J., Bertilda Orrego, A. (2014) “Education in the XXI century: An education in and for diversity”. Education, Pedagogy and Learning Environments.